Umbanda: Origins & Beliefs Explained

Umbanda spiritual representation.

Imagine stepping into a vibrant world where ancient traditions blend harmoniously with modern spirituality. This is the world of Umbanda, a unique religion that originated in Brazil and continues to captivate the hearts and minds of its followers. Embark on a journey with A Dica do Dia as we delve into the magical world of Umbanda. Discover its fascinating rituals, immerse yourself in its profound spirituality, and gain an understanding of the deities and entities worshipped within this vibrant tradition. Through exploring Umbanda’s philosophy and spiritual teachings, you will uncover the profound wisdom that underpins this beloved religion.

In order to understand Umbanda’s rich tapestry of beliefs and practices, we must first explore its intriguing origins. This spiritual path emerged from the fusion of African traditions brought by enslaved individuals, Catholicism introduced by European colonizers, and the indigenous philosophies native to the land.

Umbanda, deeply rooted in Brazil’s cultural fabric, encompasses a profound connection to nature, reverence for ancestral spirits, and a belief in the interconnectedness of all beings. It is a celebration of diversity, where multiple religious and cultural influences converge to create a spiritual path that is both deeply personal and widely inclusive.

Join us as we unravel the mysteries of Umbanda and unlock the transformative power of its spirituality. Prepare to be inspired, enlightened, and amazed as we embark on this exhilarating exploration of Umbanda’s origins and beliefs.

Umbanda Ceremony.

The Origins of Umbanda

As said, Umbanda is a spiritual path that emerged from the fusion of African religious traditions, Catholicism, and indigenous philosophies. Its origins can be traced back to the 19th century when enslaved Africans brought their spiritual practices to Brazil.

The historical context of Brazil at the time played a significant role in the development of Umbanda. The mixture of cultures and religions resulted in a rich syncretism, where African traditions melded with Catholicism and indigenous beliefs, giving rise to a distinctive spiritual path that is uniquely Brazilian.

“Umbanda is the result of a cultural and spiritual blending like no other. It represents the resilience and cultural identity of Afro-Brazilian communities, manifesting a harmonious coexistence of diverse beliefs and practices.” – Dr. Luana Silva, Religious Studies Scholar

During the 19th and 20th centuries, these African religious practices evolved and merged with Catholic rituals and indigenous spirituality. This amalgamation gave birth to Umbanda, a religion that incorporates elements of spiritism, shamanism, and mediumship.

Umbanda’s syncretism is evident in its adoption of Catholic saints as “spiritual guides” or entities known as “caboclos” and “pretos-velhos.” These entities act as intermediaries between the human and spirit realms, imparting wisdom, guidance, and healing to practitioners.

Furthermore, Umbanda incorporates rituals and practices such as drumming, dancing, and offerings, which have their roots in African spiritual traditions. These rituals serve as a means of connecting with the divine and channeling spiritual energies.

Now, let’s take a closer look at the timeline of Umbanda’s development and the key events that shaped its unique identity:

1800sEnslaved Africans bring their religious practices to Brazil, laying the foundation for Umbanda.
1864The Kardecist Spiritualist Doctrine is introduced in Brazil, influencing the formation of Umbanda.
1918The emergence of the “Center of Umbanda Nossa Senhora da Piedade” marks the formalization of Umbanda as a distinct religious movement.
1930sUmbanda gains popularity as a spiritual path, attracting followers from various backgrounds.
1950sOxalá and other African deities are incorporated into Umbanda, further solidifying its identity as an Afro-Brazilian religion.

As Umbanda continues to evolve, it remains deeply rooted in its origins, representing the cultural heritage and spiritual beliefs of Afro-Brazilian communities.

To get to know more about Brazilian culture, it’s a great option to contract our one year student visa or, in case you don’t have the chance to come to Brazil, to learn Portuguese online with us.

Umbanda’s Key Beliefs

In Umbanda, practitioners hold various key beliefs that form the foundation of their spiritual practices. These beliefs encompass the concept of spiritual guides, the significance of mediumship, and the worship of diverse deities and spirits.

One of the central tenets of Umbanda is the belief in spiritual guides, also known as “mentores” or “caboclos.” These enlightened beings are believed to assist and guide individuals on their spiritual journeys. They serve as intermediaries between humans and the divine realm, offering guidance, protection, and healing. Spiritual guides are revered and respected in Umbanda, and their presence is central to the spiritual practices of its followers.

Mediumship is another essential aspect of Umbanda. Mediums, known as “médiuns” in Portuguese, play a crucial role in facilitating communication between the physical and spiritual planes. Through various forms of mediumship, such as clairvoyance, trance, or channeling, mediums allow spiritual beings to share messages, wisdom, and guidance with the living. This practice of mediumship is deeply valued in Umbanda and is considered a powerful tool for spiritual growth and connection.

In Umbanda, worshiping deities and spirits is a common practice. These entities, known as “orixás,” “entidades,” or “guías,” represent powerful cosmic forces, ancestral energies, or nature spirits. Each deity or spirit has unique characteristics, attributes, and areas of influence. For instance, Oxalá is associated with wisdom and peace, while Exu represents transformation and spiritual evolution. Worshiping these deities and spirits through prayers, rituals, and offerings is a way for practitioners to establish a deeper connection with the spiritual realm and seek their assistance in various aspects of life.

Umbanda’s beliefs in spiritual guides, mediumship, and deity worship create a vibrant and multifaceted spiritual path. Through the guidance of their spiritual guides, practitioners engage in mediumship practices to connect with the spirit world, while also finding solace and inspiration in the worship of diverse deities and spirits.

Brazilian umbanda is a Brazilian religion with black roots.
Photo by SALEM. on Unsplash

Umbanda Deities and Their Attributes

OxaláWisdom, peace, healing
ExuTransformation, spiritual evolution, communication
IemanjáFertility, love, nurturing
OxóssiProtection, abundance, connection to nature
XangôJustice, leadership, strength
YansãPower, change, winds of transformation
OxumBeauty, sensuality, wealth

Rituals and Ceremonies in Umbanda

Umbanda is a vibrant and dynamic spiritual path that encompasses a rich tapestry of rituals and ceremonies. These sacred practices play a vital role in connecting practitioners with the spiritual realm, allowing them to seek guidance, healing, and spiritual growth. Central to Umbanda are the elements of music, dance, and offerings, which create a powerful conduit between the earthly and spiritual realms.

The melodic rhythms and mesmerizing beats of Umbanda rituals serve as a channel for spiritual communication and evoke a sense of divine presence. The hauntingly beautiful chants and songs are often accompanied by traditional instruments such as drums, tambourines, and bells. Through their rhythmic vibrations, these musical offerings create an atmosphere conducive to spiritual communion.

Dance is also an integral part of Umbanda rituals, as it allows practitioners to express their devotion and connect with the energies of the deities and spirits. The graceful movements and gestures of the dance become a form of prayer, a physical manifestation of spiritual connection and reverence.

Offerings, known as “despachos,” are an essential aspect of Umbanda ceremonies. These offerings vary depending on the specific deity or spirit being honored. They can include items such as flowers, candles, food, drinks, and symbolic objects. The act of offering these items is a gesture of gratitude and respect, inviting the spiritual entities to partake in the rituals and receive the energy and intentions behind the offerings.

Umbanda also encompasses unique rituals and traditions that are specific to its practice. These rituals often involve spirit possession, where mediums willingly allow themselves to be temporarily inhabited by spiritual guides or entities. This process allows for direct communication and interaction with the spiritual realm, enabling individuals to seek guidance, receive healing, or deliver messages from the other side.

The diverse rituals and ceremonies in Umbanda create a tapestry of spiritual experiences, connecting individuals with the divine and fostering personal growth and transformation. They provide a sacred space for practitioners to deepen their connection to the spiritual beings of Umbanda, seek answers to life’s questions, and find solace and guidance on their spiritual journey.

Umbanda and Spirit Communication

In Umbanda, the practice of mediumship serves as a powerful tool for communication with the spirit world. Mediumship is the ability to connect and communicate with spirits, acting as a bridge between the physical and spiritual realms. Through this spiritual practice, mediums play a vital role in facilitating connections between the living and the deceased.

Mediumship in Umbanda

Mediumship in Umbanda takes various forms, with different mediums possessing unique abilities and roles within the spiritual community. It is important to note that mediums are not possessed by spirits, but rather channel their energy and messages to convey information and guidance to those seeking spiritual assistance.

There are several types of mediums found in Umbanda:

Psychic MediumsThese mediums possess intuitive abilities and can receive information through thoughts, visions, or feelings. They are skilled in receiving messages from spirits and conveying them to others.
Incorporating MediumsAlso known as “cavalos,” incorporating mediums allow spiritual entities to temporarily merge with their consciousness. The medium acts as a vessel, enabling the entity to communicate directly with those seeking guidance.
Healing MediumsThese mediums specialize in spiritual healing, using their connection with the spirit world to facilitate energy healing and provide spiritual support to individuals in need.
Trance MediumsTrance mediums enter deeper states of altered consciousness, allowing for a stronger connection with spirits. They may speak in different languages, exhibit altered behavior, or demonstrate physical changes while channeling spiritual energy.

Mediums undergo extensive training and spiritual development to refine their abilities and establish a harmonious connection with the spirit realm. They often work within Umbanda centers, known as terreiros, where they provide guidance, perform rituals, and offer healing to those seeking spiritual assistance.

Connecting with the Spirit World

Through the practice of mediumship, Umbanda practitioners are able to receive messages, guidance, and healing from a variety of spiritual beings. These entities include spiritual guides, ancestors, deities, and other evolved spirits that are believed to offer support, wisdom, and protection.

Mediums create a sacred space within the terreiro, where spiritual rituals and ceremonies are conducted to connect with these entities. Music, dance, and prayers create an atmosphere of spiritual energy, enhancing the medium’s ability to establish communication with the spirit world.

Umbanda Deities and Entities

In Umbanda, the spiritual path is enriched by the diverse deities and entities worshipped by practitioners. These spiritual beings play significant roles in guiding and influencing the lives of those who seek their guidance. Let’s explore some of the prominent deities and entities in Umbanda:


Oxalá, also known as Orixalá or Oxaguian, is revered as the father of all deities in Umbanda. Representing peace, wisdom, and purity, Oxalá provides a sense of divine guidance and protection to believers.


Iemanjá, the queen of the sea, symbolizes motherhood, fertility, and emotional healing. She is often depicted as a nurturing figure, offering solace and support to those facing challenges in their lives.


Xangô, the deity of justice and thunder, is associated with power, strength, and righteousness. He represents the relentless pursuit of justice and encourages individuals to embrace their own inner strength.


Oxum is the goddess of love, beauty, and femininity. Often depicted as a sensuous and charming figure, she embodies the qualities of compassion, romance, and abundance.

Pretos Velhos

The Pretos Velhos, or “old black ones,” are wise ancestors and spirit guides who bring wisdom and healing to those seeking their assistance. They carry the knowledge and experience of past generations and provide valuable guidance in navigating life’s challenges.


The Caboclos are spiritual entities representing the Native American and indigenous populations of Brazil. They are regarded as powerful warriors and protectors, embodying nature, strength, and resilience.

The diversity of these deities and entities within Umbanda reflects the inclusiveness and acceptance that defines the spiritual practices of this unique religion. By connecting with these spiritual beings, practitioners seek their guidance, support, and a deeper understanding of their own spiritual journey.

Umbanda Philosophy and Spiritual Teachings

In exploring the rich and diverse spiritual path of Umbanda, it is essential to delve into its philosophical teachings and spiritual wisdom. Umbanda philosophy encompasses profound insights and ethical principles that guide practitioners on their spiritual journey towards growth and enlightenment.

At the core of Umbanda philosophy is the belief in the interconnectedness of all beings and the existence of a divine energy that permeates the universe. This recognition of unity encourages practitioners to cultivate compassion, love, and respect for all living beings, fostering a harmonious coexistence with both the seen and unseen realms.

Umbanda spirituality places great emphasis on personal development and spiritual evolution. Practitioners are encouraged to embark on a lifelong journey of self-discovery, seeking to uncover deeper truths about themselves and their place in the world. Through introspection, meditation, and contemplation, individuals can gain a greater understanding of their purpose and align their actions with higher spiritual principles.

“The practice of Umbanda is not only about connecting with the spirit world but also about connecting with one’s own spiritual essence. It is a path that encourages self-reflection, personal growth, and the pursuit of truth,” explains Eduardo Santos, a renowned Umbanda practitioner and spiritual teacher.

Within Umbanda, there is a profound understanding that spiritual growth and service to others are intertwined. Through acts of compassion, generosity, and selflessness, practitioners can bring about positive transformations in their own lives and in the lives of those around them. This principle of service forms the foundation for many of the rituals and practices within the Umbanda tradition.

“Umbanda is not a path of passive spirituality but one that encourages active engagement with the world and a commitment to making a difference. It teaches us that each one of us has the power to be an agent of positive change,” affirms Maria Silva, an experienced Umbanda medium and teacher.


The journey through the world of Umbanda spirituality has revealed a rich tapestry of beliefs and practices that reflect the cultural diversity of Brazil. This unique spiritual path, born from the fusion of African traditions, Catholicism, and indigenous philosophies, offers a profound connection with the divine and the spirit realm.

Umbanda embraces the concept of spiritual guides and mediumship as pathways to communicate with the spirit world. Through rituals and ceremonies, practitioners channel energies, offer devotions, and seek guidance from a pantheon of deities and entities. These practices foster a deep sense of connection, healing, and spiritual growth.

The philosophy of Umbanda encourages ethical living, spiritual evolution, and a universal love that transcends boundaries. Its teachings invite individuals to embrace their own spiritual path, celebrating unity in diversity.

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