Who is Getúlio Vargas? Getúlio Vargas governou o Brasil de 1930 a 1945.

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Who is Getúlio Vargas?

Getúlio Dornelles Vargas was born on April 19th, 1882 in São Borja, Rio Grande do Sul. He was a Brazilian lawyer and politician who ended the period called República Velha (Old Republic) and started the period called Estado Novo (New State). He was the president in two different periods, 1930 – 1945 and 1951 – 1954.

First Government (1930 – 1945)

Who is Getúlio Vargas? Getúlio Vargas criou a CLT (Consolidação das Leis do Trabalho) .

Before Getúlio, the republic system in Brazil consisted only of presidents elected from São Paulo and Minas Gerais, alternating back and forth. It was also called Política Café com Leite (Coffee and Milk Politics), since the economy in São Paulo was based on coffee production and the economy of Minas Gerais was based on milk production. Getúlio led a movement that took power and elected him the president during this time, creating a centralized government based on nationalism, populism and dictatorship. Below are some of the main achievements of this period:

  • He created the Labor Justice system in 1939.
  • He promoted workers’ rights, such as minimum wage, paid vacations, fixed working hours per week, etc.
  • Vargas also created the CSN (National Siderurgic Company) and Vale do Rio Doce Company, demonstrating his investments in infrastructure.

He left the government due to a military coup in 1945. Even though he left the government at this time, he would be back to the presidency in 1951, elected by the people in democratic elections.

Second Government (1951 – 1954)

Who is Getúlio Vargas? A Petrobrás foi criada no segundo governo de Vargas em 1953.

After leaving the presidency in 1945, Getúlio Vargas was elected to be a senator for Rio Grande do Sul in 1946. In 1951, he ran for president again and had a landslide victory over his opponents. He kept his nationalistic politics, but remained a democratically elected president and not a dictator.

He also created a campaign called O petróleo é nosso! (The oil is ours!) The campaign advocated for prohibiting foreign companies from drilling for oil in Brazilian territory. Right after this movement, Petrobrás was created by his government.

The end of the Vargas Era and his suicide

In 1954, the political environment in Brazil was tense and problematic. There were strong critics in the press attacking the Vargas government. Military officers were also unhappy with some decisions they considered left wing that were made by Vargas. The people were also very unhappy because of the difficult economic situation that the country was facing.

Because of this, there was an enormous pressure on Vargas to resign. Instead, Vargas killed himself at Palácio do Catete in 1954 by shooting himself in the chest.

Now that you’ve learned some important Brazilian history, are you ready to practice your Portuguese? Check this out!

Now it’s your turn!

Answer the questions below with the correct information about Getúlio Vargas:

  1. De qual estado era Getúlio Vargas?
  2. Quantas vezes ele foi presidente?
  3. Em qual governo ele foi eleito democraticamente?
  4. Cite três ações criadas por GetúlioVargas?
  5. Em que ano a Petrobrás foi criada?
  6. Como Getúlio Vargas morreu?

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Answers

  1. Rio Grande do Sul
  2. 2 vezes
  3. No segundo governo
  4. Direitos trabalhistas, Companhia Vale do Rio Doce e a Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional
  5. Em 1953
  6. Ele se suicidou

 

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